Culinary Terms G
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#Galantine: Cooked meat that has been boned. pressed into a mould with jelly and served cold.
2. Galette: A large quoit made from puff pastry or short pastry.
#Garnish : To decorate
4. GARNISH: To decorate a dish both to enhance its appearance and to provide a flavorful foil. Parsley, lemon slices, raw vegetables, chopped chives, and other herbs are all forms of garnishes.
5. Garniture: Decoration
6. GAteau: A cake, which is lavishly decorated.
7. Gelatine : A product made from refined cows’ hoofs. used for Jellies. Sold either granulated or in sheets.
8. Genoese : A rich butter sponge used as a base for gateaux. and as a base for savoury fingers, etc.
#GHERKINS : Small cucumber.
10. Giblets : The heart. liver and gizzard of poultry used to make gravies, soups and pies.
11. Glace: Ice. ice-cream. icing. to make smooth with icing or jelly. also crystallized or frozen foods.
12. Glaze: Meat glaze is made by reducing (by boiling) stock or gravy to the consistency of Jelly.used for improving the appearance of cold meats. etc.
13. GLAZE: To cook with a thin sugar syrup cooked to crack stage; mixture may be thickened slightly. Also, to cover with a thin, glossy icing.
14. GLUTEN: Vegetable protein found in cereal.
15. Goulash: Hungarian meat stew. flavoured with paprika.
16. GRATE: To rub on a grater that separates the food in various sizes of bits or shreds.
17. GRATIN: From the French word for “crust.” Term used to describe any oven-baked dish–usually cooked in a shallow oval gratin dish–on which a golden brown crust of bread crumbs, cheese or creamy sauce is form.
18. GRILL: To cook on a grill over intense heat.
19. GRIND: To process solids by hand or mechanically to reduce them to tiny particles.
#Gâteau – A rich, elaborately decorated cake, often a liqueur-flavoured sponge layered with cream. A gâteau can be served as dessert, for a special celebration or with coffee. Gâteau is the French word for ‘cake’.
Gelatin – A setting agent prepared from a natural animal protein, collagen, extracted from the bones and cartilage of animals. Available as powdered granules or thin leaves, gelatin is odourless, virtually tasteless and creamy white in colour. When mixed with hot water it forms a viscous liquid, which sets as a jelly, as it cools. Gelatin is used in sweet and savoury dishes, and can be used with almost all foods apart from some raw fruits, which contain an enzyme, which prevents setting. These include pineapple, Kiwi fruit (Chinese gooseberry) and pawpaw (papaya).
Gelato – Italian ice-cream, made with sweetened milk or cream, egg yolks and flavourings. It is firmer and thus less sweet than British and American ice-creams.
Genoise Cake – A light sponge cake. Eggs and sugar are whisked over a low heat until warm and thick; and melted butter is added after the mixture has cooled. Gennoise cake is used for layered cakes, sponge fingers and bombe Alaska.
#Ghee – Clarified butter, much used in the northern India. Because the milk solids have been removed, it can be heated to a higher temperature than butter without burning. To make ghee, melt butter until frothy, scoop off the foam, then gently pour the liquid butter into a heatproof glass container, leaving milk solids in the pan. When set, discard any solids from the base, reheat and repeat the process, straining through fine muslin (cheese cloth).
Ginger Bread – An aromatic, sticky cake flavoured with ginger, treacle (light molasses) and cinnamon.
Glacé – A term applied to food that has been coated with sugar syrup that hardens into a hard, glossy surface. Glacé cakes, such as petit fours, have smooth, thin layer of shiny icing.
#Glacé Fruit – Fruit that has been preserved in syrup; it is moist and sticky on the inside and has a glazed surface achieved by a final dipping in a very strong syrup. Glacé fruit has four times as many kilojoules (calories) as its fresh equivalent.
Glaze – A thin glossy surface on a food, which enhances its visual appeal and stops it from drying out. Glazes are used on both sweet and savoury dishes; some are applied before cooking, others are brushed onto cold food. Pastry can be glazed with egg white before cooking and biscuits (cookies), cakes, and breads are often sprinkled with a sugar and milk mixture before going into the oven. Hot vegetables are glazed with sugar and melted butter. Cold savoury food can be brushed with aspic jelly, and fruit sauce can serve as a glaze for ham. Fruit tarts and flans are coated with a glaze made of jam or jelly.
Golden Syrup (Light Corn Syrup) – A smooth clear syrup derived from the processing of sugar cane, used in cooking and as a sweetener for porridge and desserts.
#Gooseberry – A small, firm, tart-flavoured fruit; skin colour can be yellow, green or red-black, depending on the variety. The gooseberry originated in the cooler part of northern Europe. The American gooseberry comes from the East Coast of North America. Gooseberries can be served fresh or stewed; they are also available frozen and canned.
Gougère – Choux pastry flavoured with cheese, baked in a ring shape and served either sliced as a finger food with drinks (in Burgundy it is traditional in wine-tasting cellars) or, with a chicken or meat mixture, as a first course or light luncheon dish.
Granita – A sorbet made with fruit juices, soft fruit, coffee, wine, or liqueur, sweetened with a little sugar, and frozen until grainy crystals form. It is served between courses or as a dessert.
Grape – A small, sweet-fleshed, smooth-skinned fruit that grows in tight cluster on vines. Varieties range in colour from pale green to dark purple-black, some with seeds, others seedless. Grapes are eaten fresh as a dessert fruit or with cheese; dried as raisins, sultanas, and currants, and used in wine making.
Grapefruit – A large round citrus fruit with juicy segmented flesh and yellow to golden-pink skin. It is a popular breakfast fruit, cut in half crossways, and served in the skin (the segments can be loosened from the membrane with a special knife). It is cooked as marmalade and grapefruit juice is used in cooking and as a drink.
Greengage – A variety of plum with pale yellowy green skin and sweet, fragrant yellow flesh. It is eaten fresh, cooked as jam or stewed as a filling for tarts.
Griddle Cake – Small flat cakes, either sweet or savoury, cooked on a griddle (a thick, flat iron plate), but now also cooked on a hot plate or on a frying pan.
Grissini – Long, thin sticks of crisp, rusk-like bread. In Italy bread sticks are served along with bread at meal; they are often to be seen bunched in tumblers on restaurant tables.
Guava – The fruit of a tree native to Central America and the Caribbean. It is about the size and shape of a small apple with a thin green to yellow skin and a pulpy flesh that ranges in colour from off-white to red, is studded with tiny edible seeds and has a flavour reminiscent of pineapple and lemon. Guavas can be eaten fresh (scooped from the skin with a teaspoon), added to fruit salad, pureed for use in ice-creams and sorbets or cooked as jam and jelly. Guava juice is a popular drink in Hawaii.
Gugelhopf (Kugelhupf) – A yeast cake containing almonds with sultanas, currants or raisins, and the cherry liqueur Kirsch, and baked in a high fluted ring mold.