Cocktails are mixed drinks that have become popular since the first quarter of the 20th century It is claimed that the first recipe for a cocktail was lemon juice and powdered mixers, appreciated by Emperor Commodus in the second century AD.

One of many popular notions on the birth of the word cocktail is that during the American War of Independence, in 1779, an innkeeper, Betsy Flanagan of Virginia prepared of chicken she stole from a neighbor who was pro British. She then served the French soldiers with mixed drinks decorated with the feathers from the birds. Her merry French guests toasted her with the words Vive le cocktail. Since then the word cocktail was used to mean the mixed drinks. This is of course one of the stories.

The word cocktail was first described in an American magazine Balance as ‘a mixture of spirits, sugar water and bitters’ in 1806

The cocktail gained ground and popularity in the USA, especially during the Prohibition period. The production, transportation and sale of alcoholic beverage were banned in the USA from 1920 to 1933 due to the pressure from religious and political thinkers.

A cocktail is normally a short drink of 3 ½ -4 fluid ounces-anything larger being called a ‘mixed drink’ or a ‘long drink’

Classification of cocktails

It is estimated that there are over 10 thousand mixed drinks and cocktails in use.

Iced drinks can be roughly divided into four groups

  1. Aperitif: These stimulate the Appetite. They must therefore be appealing to the eye. Broadly speaking, these drinks are usually made from wines mixed with spirit.
  2. Cocktail: This the largest group of all, and consists of all short shaken mixed drinks. They should contain a spirit base, coloring and flavouring ingredient or other modifying agent
  • Long drinks: These are served in tall tumblers such as High Balls ,or Collins glass. It is more than 120ml (4fl oz) in which the alcohol content has been diluted.
  • Short drinks: Mixture of varying strength ; volume should not increase 120ml (4fl oz)
  1. Stimulants: Instead of going to the doctor, if one has a hangover the bartender will prescribe cocktails or mixed drinks. They are also described as ‘Pick me ups’.

Components of Cocktail:

Cocktails have the following components:

Base: The major alcoholic drink used in the preparation of a cocktail is called base, which is usually a spirit. Most cocktails are built around spirits. If a cocktail has two or more alcoholic drinks the quantity of the base generally will be more than the other. If two alcoholic drinks are used in same quantity, then the one with the higher that is the sprit is considered as the base. If a cocktail has equal quantities of different spirits then any one of the spirit can be taken as the base.

Modifier: These are complimentary ingredients added to modify or enhance the flavours. Spirits, aromatized, wines beer, fruit juices, soda, cream, liqueurs, water etc.

Flavouring, Colouring and Sweetening Ingredient: A drink might have very small quantities (few drops) of one or more flavouring and sweetening ingredients to make it different from other drinks. A cocktail can be made without these ingredients

Garnish: Many drinks have garnish. They are part of the product. It should be remembered that some drinks do not have standard garnish and it is advisable to serve without any garnish, instead of trying out different garnishes and spoiling the real flavour and value of the drink.


Cocktails are made in any of these following methods according to the type of modifier ingredients

Building: It is made by pouring the ingredients one by one in the glass in which it is to be served. If ice is required, it is placed first before adding the ingredients

Stirring: refers to mixing of the ingredients with ice by stirring quickly in a mixing glass with a stirrer and then straining to an appropriate glass. It is done very quickly to minimize the dilution.

Shaking: It is the mixing of ingredients thoroughly with ice by shaking them in Cocktail shaker and straining into appropriate glasses. Effervescent drinks should never be shaken.

Blending: This method is used for combining fruits, solid foods, ice etc in a electric bender. Any drink that can be shaken can be blended. It is a suitable method for making large quantity of mixed drinks

Layering: This method is used when the ingredients used are of different colour flavour and density. One ingredient is floated over the other by pouring gently over the back of the spoon into straight-sided glass.

Popular styles of Mixed Drinks

S.No. Style Description Method/Glassware
1 Collins Ice, Sprit, lemon, sugar, syrup, soda Build/shake; Collins
2 Coolers Ice, Sprit or wine, Syrup, Soda/ginger ale/ Any carbonated drink Build; Collins/highball
3 Rickey Ice, sprit, fresh lime soda Build; highball/old fashioned
4 Old-fashioned Sprit Sugar, bitters, cherry, and orange for Garnish Sugar, bitters, ice whisky. It is simply Whiskey over the ice without any mixer. It is It is sweetened, flavoured, and garnished. Sugar cube is moistened with splash of soda or Water and bitters and then muddled with bar Spoon, filled with ices, quantity of spirit added And stirred quickly. Garnished with cherry, Orange Peel, or lemon Build; old-fashioned
5 Mint julep Bourbon, fresh mint, sugar, shaved ice It is a popular American drink. Sprigs of Mint are placed in a frosted glass with a spoonful of sugar and muddled with the base of the bar spoon. Measure of bourbon whiskey is added and the glass is filled with plenty of ice. Gin, vermouth, garnish. Build; highball
6 Martini Gin, vermouth, garnish It is the most famous of all cocktails. The Drink was first made in 1860 in New York And the original recipe had gin, vermouth Maraschino and bitters. It was modified to 2 parts of gin to 1 part of vermouth in the Early 1900s and in the 1940s it was made Using 4 parts of gin to 1 part of vermouth And now it is 9 parts of gin to 1 part of Vermouth. Stir; cocktail glass
7 Daiquiris Chilled drink made with rum, lime and sugar Shake; cocktail glass
8 Daisies Sprit, lemon, Grenadine, crushed ice, soda Is optional; garnished with fruit Shake; mug, goblet
9 Egg noggs Sprit, egg, milk, sugar, nutmeg Shake; mug
10 Fixes Short drink made by pouring the ingredients One by one over the ice and decorated with Fruits, Served with straws Build; goblet
11 Fizz Spirits citrus juice, sugar, soda, egg, ice cube Shake; highball
12 Flips Same as egg noggs without mild and egg white;Spirits or fortified wine, sugar, egg yolk, nutmeg


Shake; goblet
13 Frappes Spirit and/or liqueurs and crushed ice. Served With short straw Build/shake; 6-12oz glass
14 Highball Spirits, carbonated water, and ice cube It is simple and quickly prepared drink Build; highball
15 Mist Spirit, crushed ice old-fashioned/rocks
16 Pousse-Caf e Syrups, Liqueurs, and spirits of various densities are gently layered one over the other by gently Pouring over the back of the spoon. Each Ingredient is floated over the other Layering; straight sided


17 Punches Rum, hot or cold water, citrus fruit juice, sugar And fruits Shake; Collins/goblet
18 Smashes Smaller version of mint juleps, made from any Spirit, sprigs of mint, sugar crushed ices. Build; old-fashioned/ Rocks
19 Sling Spirits, liqueur, citrus juice, soda ice cube garnish Shake/build; Collins/ Highball
20 Sours Spirits, citrus fruit juice, syrup, egg white Shake; cocktail
21 Spritzer Wine, Soda, ice cube Build; highball/goblet
22 Cup It is a hot-weathered drink of gin or wine base Build/stir; highball/bowl
23 Sangarees It is a sweetened drink made with spirits, wine, And other alcoholic drinks Stir; old fashioned
24 Swizzle Spirits, sugar citrus juice crushed ice soda and Bitters are optional Stir; highball
25 Toddy It may be either hot or cold and served as refresher Stir; goblet/old



SCOTCH MIST (Bourbon Mist, Rye Mist, etc.) 1 measure Scotch whisky Crushed ice Lemon twist Short straws Fill an Old-Fashioned glass with crushed ice and pour whiskey over ice. Decorate with lemon and add straws
ROUND THE WORLD 1 measure banana liqueur I measure Scotch whisky Dash Cointreau Dash orange squash Orange slice Ice Put banana liqueur and whiskey in mixing glass • with plenty of ice. Add Cointreau and undiluted orange squash. Stir and strain into cocktail glass. Add orange and serve
THISTLE 1 measure Scotch whisky 1 measure sweet vermouth 1 dash Angostura bitters Put ingredients in a mixing glass with ice. Stir and strain into cocktail glass
WHISKEY SOUR 1   measure American rye whiskey 2   teaspoons sugar 1 measure lemon juice Shake ingredients with ice until sugar is dissolved. Strain into Sour glass. Garnish with slice of orange and a cherry


WHISKEY COLLINS 1   measure American rye whiskey 2   teaspoons sugar 1 measure lemon juice Collins is a Sour served on the rocks in a Collins glass, filled with soda. Garnish as a Sour but add straws »
MANHATTAN 2 measures American rye whiskey 1 measure sweet vermouth Pour into shaker and stir until well chilled. Strain ? into Cocktail glass –
OLD FASHIONED 2 measures rye whiskey Angostura bitters Sugar In an Old Fashioned glass saturate either one lump of sugar, or one heaped teaspoon sugar, with « Angostura and add a dash of water. Muddle, add whiskey. Fill glass with ice. Stir. Garnish with slice of orange and a cherry.


Gin Cocktails:-

SINGAPORE SLING I measure gin ^ measure cherry brandy 1 fl oz lemon juice Soda Shake with ice. Serve in a Highball glass, garnish with orange slice and a cherry
PINK LADY 2 measures gin Dash grenadine Half white of egg Shake and strain into a Cocktail glass”‘
FALLEN ANGEL 1   measure gin Dash lime juice 2   dashes creme de menthe Dash Angostura blttbrs Shake and serve Cocktail glass with ice
ORANGE BLOSSOM 1 measure gin 1 measure fresh orange juice Shake and strain into a Cocktail glass
TOM COLLINS 1   measure gin 2   teaspoons castor sugar 1 measure fresh lemon juice Shake, strain into a Cocktail glass
PINK GIN 1   measure gin 2   drops Angostura bitters Iced water In Spirit glass swill round Angostura bitters and then tip out. Fill glass with ice and pour over gin. Serve with iced water according to taste



ALEXANDER I measure cognac 1 measure cream 1 measure crdme de caCao Shake well and strain into Cocktail glass
SIDECAR 2 measures cognac 1 measure Cointreau 1 measure lemon juice Shake well and pour into Highball glass with ice
BETWEEN THE SHEETS I measure cognac 1 measure Cointreau 1 measure white rum \ 1 measure lemon juice Shake well and pour into an Old Fashioned glass with ice
OLYMPIC 1 measure cognac 1 measure orange Curacao Orange juice Shake well and serve with ice in Highball glass. Garnish with orange
B&B 1/2 measure cognac 1/2 measure Benedictine Serve straight up in a Liqueur glass
STINGER 1/2 measure white creme de menthe 2 measures cognac Shake well, until icy, icy cold and serve in a Cocktail glass



BETWEEN THE SHEETS 1 measure rum 1 measure brandy I measure Cointreau Dash lemon juice Shake all together and strain into an Old Fashioned glass
PINACOLADA 1 measure white rum I measure coconut cream 1 bottle pineapple juice Shake well and strain into a Collins glass and garnish. Add straws
SHANGHAI 1 measure white rum 1 dash Pemod 1   measure lemon juice 2   dashes Grenadine Shake together and serve in Old Fashioned glass with ice
CUBA LIBRE I measure white rum I measure lemon juice 1 bottle Pepsi Cola Pour white rum and lemon juice into Collins glass with ice and lemon slice. Top up with Pepsi Cola



BLOODY MARY 1 measure vodka I bottle tomato juice serve in Old Fashioned glass if ‘on rocks’, otherwise serve in Collins glass To make ‘spicy* tomato juice add salt, pepper, Worcester Sauce. Flavour can be improved by adding any of the following: Dash Tabasco Basil Leaves juice of one quarter lemon Pepper from pepper mill Garnish can be varied -stick of celery, carrot stick, wedge of lemon
BLUE LAGOON 2 measures vodka 1 measure blue Curasao Lemonade 1 measure fresh cream Shake vodka and blue Curacao and pour onto ice in a Collins glass, add lemonade and float cream on top
BLACK RUSSIAN 1 measure vodka 1measure kahlua, ice Serve on rocks, stir the content
QUIET SUNDAY 1 measure vodka 1/2 measure Amaretto Bottle orange juice Dash of Grenadine Amaretto and orange juice. Pour into Collins glass with ice and add a dash of grenadine
WHITE SPIDER 1 measure vodka 1 measure white creme de menthe Shake vigorously and „ serve very cold in a • -Cocktail glass



SUNRISE 1   measure tequila 2   dashes Grenadine 1 bottle orange Serve with ice in Collins glass, with straws
MARGARITA 1 measure tequila 1 almost full measure lemon juice 1 measure Cointreau Shake well, strain and serve in a Cocktail glass, rimmed with salt
BRAVE BULL 1 measure tequila 1 measure Kahlua Serve in Old Fashioned glass with partly crushed ice
MOCKINGBIRD 1 measure tequila 3 fl oz grapefruit juice Dash lime juice Mix and pour into Old Fashioned glass with ice. Garnish with a cherry



DRY MARTINI (GIN AND FRENCH) 2 measures gin ‘A measure of dry vermouth Pour gin and dry vermouth into shaker. Stir until chilled. Garnish with stoned or stuffed olive on a stick, or a twist of lemon. Serve in Cocktail glass
SWEET MARTINI (GIN AND ITALIAN) Substitute sweet vermouth for dry Garnish with red Maraschino cherry
VODKA MARTINI Substitute vodka for gin Garnish with olive or twist of lemon
FIZZES 1measure American rye whiskey 2 teaspoons sugar ,1 measure lemon juice A Fizz is a Collins served off the rocks, topped with soda from syphon, and the only garnish is a cherry; Served in Old fahion glass
CHAMPAGNE/SPARKLING WINE COCKTAIL 1/2 sugar cube Angostura bitters Chilled, champagne/sparkling wine/ babycham 1 teaspoon brandy Place sugar cubes soaked in Angostura in saucer shaped Champagne glass. Pour in well chilled champagne, float brandy on top. Garnish with slice of orange, or cherry

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