Cuisine and Regional Cookery
cuisine is a characteristic manner, style or quality of cooking. cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques & dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic location.
Indian #Cuisine :
It has evolved along lines parallel to Indian history. India has an ancient cultural heritage which is dependent on
religion, geography and socio-economic conditions. Traditionally Indian cooking has been handed down through the generations by demonstrations and word of mouth.
Culinary history of India includes the skills, historical and regional influences. Religion and caste also play their role in influencing Indian cuisine. This is the land where Buddhism, Hinduism Sikhism Jainism were born; faith from other lands-Islamism Christianity have all taken the root in the subsequent. With Buddhism and Jainism stressing on Ahimsa many become vegetarians.
The origin of India’s eating habit arose because of the influence within the country and due to the climatic condition. People with new faith and new products, brought their practice with them when they inverted and influenced Indian cuisine. It is the spices whose use dates to pre-Aryan period and responsible for superb preparation. Masalas spices are the very heart of Indian cooking. Different parts of plants are used as spices and aromatics in different combinations produce an infinite variety of flavour and taste- sweet, sharp, hot, mild, spicy, aromatic, fragment or pungent. The art of Indian cuisine lies not in high spicing, but in delicacy of spicing.
The bases of an Indian meal are rice, wheat, millets, depending upon regions. It is generally eaten with lentils/pulses, vegetables, and savory pickles or chutneys. The spices transform the taste of food and tingle to palate. Spices have medicinal value. In extremes north of India is Kashmir, where cuisine is very rich and fruit nuts saffron nutmeg etc. used. Some popular dishes are Goshtaba (meat loaf), Mishaini (seven courses of lamb), etc.
The Gangetic plain in the middle and eastern part of India is both rice and wheat eating belt; and millet and maize are used in some areas. The normal meal used in lower middle classes in plain rice, vegetables, dal, unleavened bread plain yoghurt and milk based sweet.
Utter Pradesh represents a mixture of many religions and traditionally is Hindu based character. Many different castes have settled here. Quite a number of people in Utter Pradesh refrain from the use of ginger and garlic. The dishes are served in Thalis, which could be either very blend or very spicy. Some popular dishes are Poorie, Alu ki Sabzi, Bhujias, Kadhi Chawal, Tikkis, Masala Bhindi, Phirni, Kheer etc.
Benaras is a Hindu city and Lucknow is a city where the Oudh and Awadhi cooking is very popular. All dishes of this region are tasty with non-vegetarian dishes such as kababs made of minced meat with nutmeg, mace, cardamoms, peanuts and fennel seeds as an all time favorite. Kakori kababs are famous from the town Kakori. Some of the popular dishes are Pasanda, Pilaffs, Lucknowi Raan halwa etc. Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh is famous for Acher gosth, Murgh Rizala, Muzafir, Salim Gobi, etc.
Fish is very popular and dishes are prepared with mustard oil. Poppy seeds are used in some preparations. It gives distinct flavour and taste. Misti Doi a sweeten yoghurt is very popular. Some popular dishes are Loochi, Alu-dam, Moorighonto, chachhari, bhaja, Sorshe Dharosh, Singharas and in sweet Rasmalai, Sandesh, Rosogolla etc.
The common basic Ingredient used for the above cuisines are tamarind, hot red chillies, coconut, mustard, curry leaves, urat dal, rice powder etc. Cuisine is little different as they use coconut oil.
Chinese culture is the oldest civilization of the world. In unrecorded history they were the First discovers of fire. Friendship and food were inseparably linked. A gathering without food was considered incomplete and improper.
The Chinese have a strong sense of artistry which finds impression of Chinese cooking. Every aspect food is taken into consideration palatability, texture, aroma and color. Every dish is given proportion balance and harmony.
Chinese cooking calls for maximum preparation of raw ingredient and minimum cooking method. FAN and CAI-the dishes have balance, combination, and blend of color, flavor, texture, shape and size.
Five regional cuisines are predominant. These are South-Eastern: Cantonese, Western: Szechwan, North-Eastern: Pecking or Shantung, Central: Honan, East Coast: Fuken.
The various regional cuisines were influenced by many factors, such as it was influenced by Western traveler. When they migrated they established Chinese restaurant outside of China.
The province is hot almost tropical. The food is highly spiced, peppery and some what oily. Deep frying is popular. Chicken chili fry, Szechwan Duck is favorite dish of this cuisine.
North-Eastern (Pecking or Shantung Style):
Shanghai was influenced by the active trade between Peking and Shantung. Peking, now called Beijing, was the site of Imperial Palace. Construction of wealth attracted the country’s best chefs, which brought cooking to its highest level. It has a reputation for Mammoth feast and Banquets.
Central (Hunan Style):
The yellow river runs through the Hunan province which is famous for its yellow river crops. It’s known for its spiced concentration, sweet and sour dishes and rich seasoning.
East Coast (Fuken Style):
This province of china is famous for sea food and for clear light soups. They are known for their quality. Wine is sometime used in cooking.
Pasta, risotto ,fritto misto ,pizza are world wide enjoyed. Italian cuisine has a great variety of different ingredients such as meats, ham, sausage, salami. liver, tongue, sweet bread (beef ,pork ,lamb, chicken), fish(seafood), vegetables (garlic ,potatoes ,artichokes ,olives ,,capers , eggplants ,mushrooms, zucchini and spinach). Rice, maize, corn and Parmesan ,Gorgonzola, cheeses are commonly used. Popular herbs are basil, rosemerry, oregeno, Pasta dishes are widely based on tomato or tomato concasse,red and white italian wines .gnocchi (made with potatoes) considered as pasta
Pasta is categorized in two basic styles: dried and fresh. Dried pasta made without eggs can be stored for up to two years under ideal conditions, while fresh pasta will keep for a couple of days with eggs in the refrigerator. Italian pasta is traditionally cooked al dente (“firm to the bite”, meaning not too soft).
Goes well with
- spaghetti(long thin) -tomato based sauce
- fettuccine(wide flat ribbon)-cream sauce
- short hollow tubes-chunkier sauce
- 1lit water =115 gm pasta(less water -sticky pasta)+( oil to avoid stickyness)
- Large pan must be use +Fast boil water + salt and pasta
- Cooking times depends on type of pasta + fresh pasta cooks fast then dried pasta
- Dont over cook
French cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from France that has developed from centuries of social change. In the Middle Ages, Guillaume Tirel, a court chef, authored Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of Medieval France. In the 17th century, La Varenne and the notable chef of Napoleon and other dignitaries, Marie-Antoine Careme, moved toward fewer spices and more liberal usage of herbs and creamy ingredients, signaling the beginning of modern cuisine. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, playing different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations and appellation d’origine controlee (AOC) (regulated appellation) laws.
French cuisine was codified in the 20th century by Escoffier to become the modern version of haute cuisine; Escoffier, however, left out much of the regional culinary character to be found in the regions of France. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to acquaint people with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the French countryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has also had great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country.
Knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly to Western cuisines and its criteria are used widely in Western cookery school boards and culinary education. In November 2010 the French gastronomy was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world’s “intangible cultural heritage”
French cuisine has evolved extensively over centuries. The national cuisine started forming in the middle Ages due to the influence of the work of skilled chefs and various social and political movements. Over the years the styles of French cuisine have been given different names, and have been modified by various master-chefs. During their lifetimes, these chefs have been held in high regard for contributions to the culture of the country. The national cuisine developed primarily in the city of Paris with the chefs to French royalty, but eventually it spread throughout the country and was even exported overseas.
Mid 20th century – late 20th century
The 1960s brought about innovative thought to the French cuisine; especially because of the contribution of Portuguese immigrants that had come to the country fleeing the forced drafting to the Colonial Wars Portugal was fighting in Africa. Many new dishes were introduced, as well as techniques. This period is also marked by the appearance of the “Nouvelle Cuisine”.
The term nouvelle cuisine has been used many times in the history of French cuisine. This description was seen in the 1740s of the cuisine from Vincent La Chapelle, Francis Marin and Menon, and even during the 1880s and 1890s to describe Escoffier’s cooking. The term came up again, however, during the 1960s, when used by two authors, Henri Gault and Christian Millau, to describe the cooking of Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros, Michel Guerard, Roger Verge and Raymond Oliver. These chefs were working toward rebelling against the “orthodoxy” of Escoffier’s cuisine. Some of the chefs were students of Fernand Point at the Pyramide in Vienne, and had left to open their own restaurants. Gault and Millau “discovered the formula” contained in ten characteristics of this new style of cooking.
The first characteristic was a rejection of excessive complication in cooking. Second, the cooking times for most fish, seafood, game birds, veal, green vegetables and pates was greatly reduced in an attempt to preserve the natural flavors. Steaming was an important trend from this characteristic. The third characteristic was that the cuisine was made with the freshest possible ingredients. Fourth, large menus were abandoned in favor of shorter menus. Fifth, strong marinades for meat and game ceased to be used. Sixth, they stopped using heavy sauces such as espagnole and bechamel thickened with flour based “roux”, in favor of seasoning their dishes with fresh herbs, quality butter, lemon juice, and vinegar. Seventh, they used regional dishes for inspiration instead of haute cuisine dishes. Eighth, new techniques were embraced and modern equipment was often used. Ninth, the chefs paid close attention to the dietary needs of their guests through their dishes. Tenth and finally, the chefs were extremely inventive and created new combinations and pairings.
Some have speculated that a contributor to nouvelle cuisine was World War II when animal protein was in short supply during the German occupation. By the mid-1980s food writers stated that the style of cuisine had reached exhaustion and many chefs began returning to the haute cuisine style of cooking, although much of the lighter presentations and new techniques remained.
NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE CUISINE
This cuisine uses the simplistic style of preparation, where large chunks of meat, seafood and vegetables are marinated sparingly and cooked in the clay tandoor at high temperatures so that they remain tender and succulent.
The spices and flavors are judiciously used so as not to overpower the preparations and to be acceptable to every’ palate. The rusticness of the cuisine and the focus on preserving the flavors and ingredients is another key distinction of this cuisine. Originally, the kebabs owe their origin to this cuisine..
The other important factor is that the method of cooking is quite adaptable to vegetarian ingredients also. Tandoori gobhi and Dal are as popular as chicken tikka.
The food is cooked in clay ovens or tandoor in the traditional style of the Indian North-West Frontier region. This style of cooking requires great expertise on the part of the chefs, since the meat is not accompanied by any sauce or gravy, but is only pre-marinated and cooked before serving. It takes a Chef years of meticulous training and dedication to master the technique of the art of making the breads that are a vital part of the cuisine, or to acquire the ability to gauge spices, mix marinades, and the most vital of all, to judge the heat of the tandoor and the time necessary for each dish to be perfectly cooked.
Another unique feature of the cuisine is the use of prime cuts of meat, marinated with the choicest of spices and skilfully cooked on high heat, while retaining their tender moistness.
The British demarcated the North-West Frontier Province in the year 1900, which comprised parts of Afghanistan, and the North-West part of pre-independence India. The cuisine has been inspired by the essence of North-West Frontier tradition, of camaraderie around the warm glow of a campfire – succulent tandoori fare, low on oil and high on authenticity.
NWF Cuisine Menu
- Tawa Samudri Jheenga-“Lobster”: tossed with homemade spices on a traditional round griddle
- Jheenga Khurchan-“Tossed Prawns” : with onion and tomatoes ,finished with crushed spices
- Murg Malai Kabab-“Chunks of Chicken”cooked with cream and cheese
- Behari Kabab-“Chicken Supremes”: with hand ground spices, char grilled over live coal
- Chapli Kabab-“Escallops of Lamb”: with fresh ginger and green chillies, flattened on a griddle
- Jheenga Kali Mirch-“Jumbo Prawns”: coated with hung curd and spiced with freshly ground pepper
- Nimbu Mahi Tikka-“Fish Steaks” : in a citrus marinade ,tandoor cooked
- Makkhanwala Tandoori Murg “Butter Tandoori Chicken”: house speciality of whole spring chicken ,with butter and paste off resh greens
- Reshmi Kabab-“Minced Chicken”: combined with fresh root herbs , skewered and cooked in a clay ove
- Kakori Kabab-“Spiced Ground Lamb”: combined with raw papaya and thirty two spices,f inished over charcoal
- Galauti Kebab-“Finely Minced Lamb”: with spices, cooked on a griddle, served with a traditional wheat bread
- Awadhi Seekh Kabab-“Skewered Spiced Lamb”with cashewnuts and spices slow cooke done skewers over live coal
- Shorba—e—Barkush-“Lamb Broth” served with mini lamb dumplings
- Tamatar aur Nariyal ka Shorba- “ Tomato Broth” finished with coconut
- Machli ka Salan-“Fillet of Fish”s immered in a sesame seed ,fried onion and fenugreek gravy
- Limbu Dah iMurgh-“Tangy Chicken”: stuffed and cooked in a unique liquor off reshlemon and yoghurt,served witha LacchaParatha
- Dal Makhani: soaked and cooked slowly overnight ,finished with fresh cream
- Peeli Dal Tadka: lentil tempered with cumin seeds red chillies.
- Hara Moong Mughlai- “Whole Green Gram”: cooked overnight on a live coal ,tempered with garlic and dill leaves, served witha Mirchi kaParatha
- Biriyani / Pulao- Rice:
- Nizami Murg Biryani: flavourful combination of basmati rice ,chicken and traditional Nizami spices
- Hyderabadi Dum Biryani: flavourful combination of basmatirice ,lamb and traditional hand crushed Hyderabadi spices
- Phirnee: reduced sweetened milk with grounded rice ,nuts and saffron
- Gulkand Jamun: reduced milk dumpling stuffed with rose petals