Beer: Ingredients, Manufacturing, Processing, Types & Brand Names.

Beer is an alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermenting malted barley and sometime other cereal with hops added to flavor and stabilize it .Beer is a refreshing drink whose alcoholic content varies from 3% to 4%.

The earliest record of beer making are found in clay tablets written by ancient Sumerian more than 6 thousand year ago. Beer started taking modern form in Christian era. This was largely due to interest taken by the monasteries, which brewed beers and improved it. It was these European monasteries that introduced hops as flavoring. and technique of bottom fermentation that greatly contributed to primitive brew to become the much appreciated modern beers of today.

Beer -  Ingredients, Manufacturing, Processing, Types & Brand Names by BNG Hotel Management Kolkata
Beer – Ingredients, Manufacturing, Processing, Types & Brand Names by BNG Hotel Management Kolkata

The ingredients used for beer making have great bearing on the final product —— quality and quantity of each and how they are used during the process. The essential ingredient for beer making are:-


  1. WATER:- Water constitutes about 90% of the finished beers. The biological purity and mineral content at the water must be ascertained. In brew parlance water is called liquor. Hard water is assumed to be better suited for lager beers whereas soft water is more ideal for heavier beers. Certain mineral alts like Gypsum aids in separation of husk from malt resulting in clean finished beer. Again mineral like natural Calcium are suited for beers. Ideally majorities of the world’s breweries either modify or directly use naturally available water to suit their needs.
  2. Grain:- The most desirable and frequently used grain for making beer is high quality barley. Varieties of hordium sativum are used . Barley is flavored over other as it contains essential enzymes like Diastase And Maltase. After receiving the barley screened and cleaned . Then it is taken to malting shed and steeped in water. The grains are turned regularly to ensure contact with oxygen. Then the grain begin to germinate as essential enzymes convert the complex starch into fermentable soluble sugar( Maltose, Dextrin etc. Malting is a process by which starch content of grain is brought to maximum. At this stage the Green malt is placed on the floor of a Klin and heat stops the process of germination but allow the enzyme Diastase to remain active. The temperature of the klin and length of time that malt is roasted determines colour and sweetness of beers.
  3. adjuncts:- sometimes at the time of mashing malt i mixed with other cereals (rice & corn) which are frequently referred to as adjuncts. More the adjunct , lighter the body and flavour of finished beer. However in certain countries like Germany use of adjuncts is legally banned. This i one the reasons German beers are considered to be purest of all.
  4. Hop (Humulus Lupulus):- Hops are member of nettel family . It is perennial flowering vine. The cone shaped female flower are used for it contains “Lupulin” a bitter dust which contains tannin, rasins and other essential oils. The best English hop are produced in Kent, Susex & Worcestershire. The Bohemian hops from Czechoslovakia are amongst the world’s bet. A few examples of well known hops are :- saaz(Chez rep.) Bouillon (U.S.A), Golding & Fuggle (U.K), Hallertan (Germany)

Hops are used for the following reasons:-

  1. Flavoring:- It provides the characteristic flavor
  2. Taste:- It provides certain bitterness
  3. Anticeptic:- Prevent microbial actions and bacterial spoilage during brewing process
  4. Cleaning:- It is used to filter wort to remove much of sediment and solids ( spent hops may be further used as fertilizer)
  5. Clarification:- Tannin present in hops acts as clarifying agent
  6. Preservation:- It increases shelf life of beers.
  7. Sugar:- Specially graded and refined sugar is used that aids in fermentation process and also give sweetness to beer. The yeast act on sugar therefore breaking it up into alcohol and carbon di oxide.
  8. Yeast:- It is a microscopic unicellular microorganism that multiplies itself by cell division. The function of yeast in the beer making process is to encourage wort to ferment. The two basic varieties of brewer’s yeast are:- Saccharomyces cerevisae (also called top fermenting yeast) and Saccharomyces carlbergenises (also called bottom fermenting yeast) . The co2 thus produced is not allowed to escape , but stored. The quality and quantity of yet is strictly maintained which effect the quality of beers.
  9. Additives:– A number of breweries use natural and chemical substances called additives to serve the following purpose:-
  • Peptones ——– to stabilize foam head
  • Gum Arabic ————-   to stabilize foam head
  • Ascorbic acid ———— to prevent oxydation of beers which may result in loss of flavour and colour
  • Hydroxybenzonate ———- acts as preservative
  • Caramel ——— to adjust colour

FINNINGS :–       Ingredient that are used to clarify beers example:- Ising glass (swimming bladder of sturgeon fish) , egg shell, peptin etc. The finnings attract the unwanted particles at the bottom of the cask, leaving the beer clear. Different filters like cellulose, asbestor etc are also used for the same purpose.



  1. LAUTERING :- The mash is passed to the lauter tun (with a slated base) & is stirred with movable rakes. When the stirring stops , the solid settles at the bottom and get filtered through the slated bottom. The liquid i now called wort.
  2. Brewing:- The mash flow out to the brewing kettle, called the copper. Hops are now added and mash is boiled for 1 to 2 1/2 hrs Sometimes while preparing brown ale and a sweet stout invert sugar and hops are added to increase amount of fermentable sugar in the wort. The boiling sterilizes the beer and sweet stouts, invert sugar & hops are added that prevent the beers from spoilage. The process is called brewing.
  3. HOP-BACK:- AFTER COMPLETION OF BREWING OPERATION , HOP BACK IS DONE. This is the process of removing spent hop in large tank with perforated floors. The hot wort i piped into this & spent hops settle at the bottom . The wort passe through this filter of spent hops leaving the floating olids behind.
  4. LAGERING:- This is a derivative of German word :Lagern” meaning to store. The young beer is run off to storage vats & temperature is brought down. Though only bottom fermented beer is called lager beers, even Ale needs Lagering or maturing for few days for proper conditioning.
  5. KRAUSENING:- In some breweries freshly fermented wort is introduced to the beer to add zest and carbonation before it is sent for lagering. This process is called KRAUSENING in German meaning “foam” or “froth” . It is used to stimulate secondary fermentation during lagering of lager type beer.
  6. PASTEURIZATION:- The French scientist Louis Pasteur introduced this method. It is usually carried out in case of bottled or canned beer to increase shelf life. The final containers are heated with hot water spray to 60*C/140*C for at least 20min. The process kill any bacteria and any remaining yeast present in the beer which stops secondary fermentation, which otherwise might result in explosion of bottles & bulging of cans.
  7. BRUISED BEER:- From brewery to bar , a constant temperature is essential to maintain the quality of beer. A beer that has been warmed and cooled again suffers loss in quality and is termed as bruised beer.


Lager beer:-

Lager is the generic term for all bottom-fermented beers. L agcing of beer takes place at a near freezing temperature. It may last from several weeks to several months. Lagcr beers, compared to ale. take a longer period to mature, have less pronounced hop flavour & (except for some contrasting examples) have low alcoholic content. Lagers are generally light bodied. Brand names are-

Budweiser. Coors.   Stroll’s (U.S.A.)\ Kakabeka. Holiday (Canada)’. Lowenbrau. Holsten. Dortmundcr (Germany)

Carlsborg,_ Tuborg (Denmark) Harp. Long Life (UK.) , Foster’s. Perkins (Australia) etc.

There are different styles of lager beers, which arc as follows—

  • Pilsner Hie name derived from the classic Pilsner-Urquell made in town of Pilsen in chechoslovakia.
  • This style of beer is a lively. dry. light – bodicd, light! pale golden amber coloured beer. Generally the alcohol content is 4-5% by volume. Pilsner is always served chilled. Some brand names arc Slaudicr Pils. Konig-Pilsncr (Germany). Cascade (Canada;) and Hcinckcn Pilsner (Holland).
  • Bock – Bock beers arc traditionally strong, heavy. dark lagers with a high alcohol content & a rich malty flavour, produced in Havana. Germany Though most of them arc dark in colour, they may also be pale or amber or bronze. The alcohol content is 6% by volume & They arc served slightly chilled. Bock beers were originally brewed seasonally to celebrate special occasions.
  • Double Bock:-   It was originally produced by Italian monks and traditionally served as warming beers. The strongest beer in the world is a double bock called ” Kulminator”(13.2% by volume), produced in Bavana, Germany
  • Light Beer:- The variant of Pilsner style beer cater today’s health conscious crowd. These beer typically have 100 calories or less per 12 ounce serving and alcohol content of (3.2-3.9%) by volume. Brands are- Miller light, coors Light, bud light
  • Malt liquor:- They are lager beer with high alcoholic content than pilsner —- generally 5.5 to 6% by weight . Adding extra enzyme to increase fermentation usually produces them. Has light malt flavour. Brands– Colt 45
  • Steam Beer:- It combines the bottom fermentation of lager beer with higher fermenting temperature of Ale. Alcohol content 5% by volume.
Dry beer:-   Thi a introduced in Japan in 1987. They are less sweet, lively & refreshing with little or no after taste.

ALE BEER:-  Ale is generic term for top fermented beer. Ale are fermented at higher temperature & takes less time to mature. More pronounced hop flavour, heavy body & in most cases high in alcoholic content. They are not served chilled.. The various styles are a follow:-

  1. CREAM ALE:- Golden in color, mild beer with sweet taste.
  2. PALE ALE :- Straw coloured brew made from lightly roasted malt. It has pronounced yeast and hop flavour. Alcohol content 5% by volume. Brand names :- Martin’ Pale Ale, Courage’s Strong Pale Ale etc (U.K.)
  3. INDIAN PALE ALE:- Contains extra hop. Brand names :- Bass, Charington’s, Indian Pale Al.
  4. Bitter Ale:- Copper Colored, low in alcohol, heavily hopped, full bodied, malty and most of them are bitter. Alcohol content — 3.5 – 5% by volume. Brand— Master Brew bitter, Pedegree bitterAle (U.K.) Fuller’s
  5. Mild Ale:- Dark amber brew with sweet after taste of caramel. Lightly hopped. Alcohol content (2.5 – 3.5 %). by volume. Brands– Mild Ale, Hanson’ Mild(U.K)
  6. Brown Ale:- Often reffered to a “desert wine” owing to its extra sweet taste. Alcohol content (6-12%). by volume. Brands– Provsie (Belgium), Samuel Smith (U.K)
  7. Barley wine:- Few old ale which are matured for 2 years or more. Alcohol content (3-6%). Brand– White bread’s Gold label
  8. Porter:- Light black coloured beer, ha more malty and les hop flavor, weeter than stout, also called “Light Gravity Black Beer”. Alcohol content (5-7.5%). Brands– Burton Porter(U.K), Sierra Neveda(U.S.A)
  9. Stout— Commonly called “Black beer”, High hop content and strong malt taste, Alcohol content (4-10%). Brands – Courage’s Velvet stout, (U.K), Guiness (Ireland)

WHEAT BEER:-     Also called “White beer”. It is top fermented, high percentage of wheat -60%,often laced with fruit, cherished as summer drink. Brand—- Welsse, Weizanbier(Germany), Lambic, Gueuze(Belgium)

NON ALCOHOLIC BEER—–         These are made either by removing the alcohol after brewing or by stoping the fermentation process before the alcohol forms; has low calorie count; alcoholic content le than 0.5%


1) BOTTLED OR CANNED:- Beer is manufactured at a much lower temperature. Pasteurized for longer shelf life. Thee should be stored at 70*F & preferably in a dark room. Approx shelf life is from 3-6 months Bottles should be kept upright so that beer does not come in contact with the “crown seal”. The desired chilling can be done before actual service.

2) Draught Beer:- Most draught beers are unpasteurised. So to prevent over carbonation and souring, they must be kept under refrigeration at (36-38)*F, the keg should have the storage area close to the bar. Secondary fermentatio0n takes place inside the keg.


1) Good Ventilation

2) Cleanlines

3) Even temperature (55-58)*F

4) Regular spilling to avoid excess pressure inside cask

5) Tapping should be carried on 24hr before a cask is required

6) Pipes & engines should be cleaned at regular basis

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