D1216A- Tea and Coffee
Tea and Coffee
The most universally consumed beverage made by infusing the dried leaves of an Asiatic evergreen herb called CAMELLIA SINENSIS. There are two main varieties of tea plant, that of china an that of India with numerous local varieties and hybrids. India is the largest producer of tea followed by Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Indonesia, East Africa, Latin-America and Russia. In French and Britain tea has become the national beverage with the most popular varieties being Ceylon teas. Tea contains half the amount of caffeine as compared to coffee.
MAIN TEA PRODUCING COUNTRIES
The best known teas from the world’s largest producers are Darjeeling and Assam tea. Darjeeling tea is known as the ‘Champagne of Tea”
This is the oldest tea growing region and is known for its delicately perfumed teas. For examples Orange pekoe, Jasmine, Lapsang Souchong, Rose Pouchong.
These teas have a delicate light lemon flavour and are regarded as afternoon teas. They also tend to be light and refreshing.
OTHER TYPES OF TEA
This is a blend of Darjeeling and china tea and is flavoured wit oil of Bergamot ( a small yellowish, sour, citrus fruit similar to oranges)
These are fruit flavoured and herbal teas. For eg. Georgia teas flavoured with citrus fruit and flowers
This tea from Taiwan is made from semi-fermented leaves.
The trees which produce coffee are the genus Coffea which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. There are somewhere in the region of 50 different species, although only two of these are commercially significant. These are known as Coffea arabica and Coffea camepfiora which is usually referred to as robusta. Arabica accounts for some 75% of world production.
The fruits of the coffee tree are treated to remove the pulp and the yellowish Grey beans are hulled, grated and bagged. In this form the beans are known as green coffee which keeps for a long time provided that it is protected from damp.
Roasting is the second step where the coffee beans releases various complex volatile constituents which are responsible for the characteristic flavour. The beans are continuously stirred during the roasting process at 200C they are light brown and double in volume. Well roasted coffee should be fairly dark reddish brown insufficient roasting produces a harsh, colourless, tasteless in fusion where as excessive roasting yields a very black and bitter coffee.
The final operation is grinding the fineness of the ground depends on which method is used to brew the coffee it is always preferable to grind only enough coffee for once immediate need, as ground coffee loses its aroma very quickly.
The stimulating effect the coffee has on the body is due t the alkaloid called caffeine.
Methods of making Coffee
Instant Coffee:- This is real coffee, which has been made ad dehydrated. It is reconstituted by adding boiling water.
Filter/drip coffee: This uses a fine to medium grind coffee. This method involves pouring boiling water into a container which holds coffee inside a filter paper. Hot water is poured over this and then the coffee drips through to a lower container.
Decaffeinated coffee:- This is coffee from which caffeine has been removed.
Vacuum Infusion (Cona coffee):- Using a medium grind this method is characterised by the double or glass bowl and filter which many people know by the trade mark (cona), the company who makes the glass equipment.
L’Cafeteria:- Using a medium grind, the coffee is made in a custom designed jug which has a plunger to act as a filter.
Espresso:- Using a fine grind, this uses a process of forcing steam through a fine filter containing coffee. It is usually very strong
Cappuccino :- Using a fine grind this is expresso coffee t which milk heated by steam is added. Grated nutmeg, grated cardamom or chocolate powder is sprinkled on the top.
Turkish/ Egyptian coffee
Using powdered coffee, this is made from dark roasted coffee in a special copper pot. Vanilla pods are sometimes included as additional flavourings.
The best serving temperature are 82C for coffee and 68C for milk.